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Principles of Sustainable Development.

 

For the first time principles of sustainable development was defined in “World Strategy for Nature Preservation” (1980) created by initiative of the UNEP, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and WWF.

The principles had been defined within global political discussion starting with the 1970 Report about limits of the economical growth (The Limits to Growth), through solution of the Brunddtland Comission (1980) to the prominent solutions on Rio Summit (1992).

In United Nation’s 1987 “Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development” (“Our common future”) was indicated on necessity of “sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.

Sustainable development identified as the process of changes in which exploitation of natural resources, investment patterns, scientific and technological streamlines, personal development and institutional changes are harmonized with each other and strengthen the present and future potential to meet the human needs and desires.

In 2002 the United Nation’s World Summit on Sustainable Development confirmed the global community commitment to the principles of sustainable development for long-term meeting the human needs simultaneously with preservation of planet’s life-supporting systems (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, 2002).

In 2003 UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) initiated the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production or the 10-years program in supporting regional and national initiatives to be aimed to accelerate shift to sustainable consumption and production towards an economic growth without environmental degradation.
About 35 countries in the world are now developing own programs for sustainable development and production:

  • the European Union has undertaken the important steps to promote the sustainable consumption and the Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and Production was accepted in 2008
  • in Africa the 10-years Plan for Sustainable Consumption and Production was approved by African Ministerial Conference on the Environmental in 2005 and eco-labeling project has being developed
  • in the Pacific Asia several countries have undertaken tax reforms, India and China are also actively involved in the Marrakech Process
  • USA and Canada have the special policy and laws that are resulting in a significant increase of the sustainable development practice. In Latin America the environmental ministry also have initiated similar strategies

Russia Federation also has initiated the changes in regulatory environment by introducing new principles of environmental management aimed to shift toward the principles of sustainable development.

The government program contemplates the reduction of GDP’s energy capacity by no less than 40% to 2020 (as compared to 2007). The Federal Law’s “The Energy Saving and Improving the Energy Efficiency” was in force in 2009.

Together with the EU Russia are implementing the project "Harmonization of the Environmental Standards". The first phase of this project have already been completed and outcome recommendations concerning an integrated pollution prevention and control have been elaborated.

Now its second phase is carrying out aimed to the incorporation into the Russian law rules providing for the introduction of best management practices, application of new methods of environmental management activities, including elements of environmental management based on the use of international standards ISO 14000, environmental auditing, eco-certification, insurance and other economic methods.